Yet the real-life situations of Chughtai’s protagonists continue to play out in the lives of queers across South Asia. Unlike Ali, many succumb to family pressure to marry and have children. In the case of gay men, friends and family in their close circles are often well aware of their sexual preferences but do not talk about it.

Queer women’s lives are even more hidden — partly because their domains tend to be more private and partly because the issue of female sexuality is even more contentious. The Victorian-era law against homosexuality in Britain, which applied to India as its colony, makes no mention of lesbianism.

 Flouting these sensibilities have been films like Hanif Kureshi’s scripted My Beautiful Laundrette, 1985 (starring Daniel Day-Lewis), set in London, and Canada-based Deepa Mehta’s Fire, 1996, set in India. Featuring a relationship between two sisters-in-law, “Fire,” initially cleared by the Censor Board of India, was banned after protests from Hindu religious right-wing groups claiming that it countered Indian culture.

A few years after Ali went to London, his parents accepted his sexual orientation. They were initially reluctant. His father’s primary concern was that as someone from a family claiming lineage from the Prophet Mohammad’s family, Ali should be “active” not “passive.” The son burst out laughing.

His devout mother was concerned that Ali and his partner, Keith, were committing a sin by “living as gay boys.”

“Ma,” Ali told her, “I’m not living ‘like a gay boy.’ I am who I am.”

Ali’s story has parallels in the recent star-studded Bollywood movie “Kapoor and Sons” hailed as a torch-bearer for India’s LGBT movement. As with “The Quilt,” the film never explicitly touches homosexuality. It contains no words that the censors might axe. There are no scenes of the leading man, played by Pakistani heartthrob Fawad Khan, with his live-in partner in London. Yet many have applauded Khan’s courage for taking on this role that three leading Indian actors had turned down. The mother finally accepts her erstwhile favorite “perfect” son with his “imperfection.”


“Kapoor and Sons”: photos via Twitter accounts – Rishi Kapoor @chintskap and Fawad Khan @fwadakhan

The abhorrence towards gays in South Asian society is at odds with the traditional acceptance of Hijras or Khwaja Seras — as transgender people there prefer be called — who are considered harbingers of good luck. Dressed in women’s clothes, many transgender people eke out a living by singing and dancing at births and weddings or begging for alms at traffic lights. At the elite level, there’s Ali Saleem, whose alter ego, Begum Nawazish, had her own TV show.

Pakistan officially recognizes transgender as a third gender, and, recently, the Council of Islamic Ideology ruled in favor of marriage between transgender people identifying as being from the opposite gender. It’s the middle class that refuses to accept both trans and queer people. Being cursed by a Khwaja Sera is still considered bad luck.

Conservative South Asians who blame the West for degrading their values also forget the rabid homophobia in much of Western society. As Yale law professor Muneer Ahmad reminds us: “Countless other hate crimes have been perpetrated against LGBT individuals” in the United States.

Ahmad is one of the few South Asian academics in the United States to be out. Another was the late flamboyant Chicago-based Iftikhar “Ifti” Naseem, considered the first openly gay Urdu poet of modern times.

But in Pakistan, where purdah affords gays some protection, Ali’s mother still made him promise not to make public his sexual orientation. That was back in the early 1990s. For years, he thought she was just fearful about social disapproval — but it went much deeper. Recently, she told him she hadn’t wanted to see his butchered corpse flung outside their home in Lahore.

The vulnerability of queers in Muslim-majority countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria has increased with the rise of militancy that falsely claims legitimacy from Islam. Even transgender people, traditionally accepted as a third gender in society, are now under attack.

Most Muslims, even those with progressive interpretations of Islam, believe that the religion, like other Abrahamic faiths, forbids homosexuality. “It is not for us to judge anyone,” says Imam Ismail Fenni of the Islamic Society of Boston in Cambridge. “That is not Islam. People can have differences of perception, and we have to accept them.”

The Cordoba Initiative in New York, which aims to promote a moderate interpretation of Islam, goes further. The verse about Soddom and Lot “is actually against rape and promiscuity, not homosexuality,” explains Dr. Asmi Jamil, a Pakistan-born physician who volunteers with the initiative.

Pakistani transgenders decorate hands with henna ahead of the Eid al-Fitr festival in Peshawar on July 5, 2016. Millions of Muslims around the world prepare to celebrate the Eid al-Fitr feast marking the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. / AFP PHOTO / A MAJEEDA MAJEED/AFP/Getty Images

Transgenders in Peshawar apply henna ahead of Eid-ul-Fitr, the festival that marks the end of Ramzan (Ramadan), the month of fasting and abstinence. Majeeda Majeed/ Getty Images

But for all the efforts at tolerance, many South Asian Muslim queers tend to keep the purdah and share information only on a need-to-know basis. A queer college professor who doesn’t see the need to reveal her sexual orientation to her parents and older relatives tells me that her young cousins in Lahore are aware of it: “We don’t talk about it, but they all know. Things have changed a lot with more people traveling, social media, everyone’s conversant with the language and ideas. In fact, talking to them, sometimes I feel old fashioned,” she says.

Things are changing for some young people in Pakistan. Many, even those who have never been abroad, now see sexual orientation as a basic human right.

In the Boston area, younger Muslims may have no problem with sexual orientations — but they may get a different message at home, says Mario Moreira, a Portuguese convert to Islam who is president of the Islamic Center in Wayland.

The Orlando massacre prompted news discussions on Islam, inclusivity, and homosexuality among Pakistani and Indian Muslims in the United States. Many are trying to forge a more inclusive and tolerant narrative of their faith.

In a telephone conference just after the attacks, Mohammad Hasan in Houston, who volunteers with a nonprofit called the Alliance for Compassion and Trust, talked about the need to go beyond condemnations and assertions that violent extremists don’t represent the Muslim community.

A dental surgeon, Salman Malik, of Londonderry, N.H., agreed. “We evolve with each tragedy,” he said. Like his friend and colleague Ehsun Mirza, a physician in Rhode Island, he has been joining LGBT rallies and addressing demonstrations in New England.

“We need to join hands across the board regardless of religious or cultural beliefs,” said Malik. Other participants in the meeting, like lawyer Zahid Ali Akbar in London, stressed that social media offers a platform for progressive Muslims to make their voices heard and counter the narrative that extremists propagate.

Toronto-based blogger and illustrator Eiynah has been tackling such issues by writing about sexuality, initially for a Pakistani audience. Fed up with encountering homophobia, “even from people who had same-sex encounters,” she told me, she produced an illustrated children’s book, “My Uncle Is Gay,” a couple of years ago.

No school or bookstore in Pakistan will carry the book. One bookstore that initially expressed interest backed off after realizing what the topic really was. One newspaper published an article about it but later changed its editorial policy to “avoid printing such articles in the future.”

The conflict unfolding before us is a long way from being resolved. But one thing is certain: Being religious and being gay within Islam are no longer as mutually exclusive as they once were. A forward movement is visible and the struggle continues.

Below: paragraphs that were not included in the published piece:

South Asians who blame “the West” for the “degeneration in our values” ignore the amorphous relationships of revered Sufi poets with other men, hard to fathom using modern-day terms and labels. Probably the most well known in the West is the 13th century mystic Jalaluddin Rumi, initially inspired by the mystical Shams Tabrizi.

It is through the love of the Sufis, not the violence of the sword, that Islam spread in the region. Sufi burial places, shrines or dargahs, dot the landscape from the south in Kerala – home to the first mosque in India — to the northern border with Nepal, from Bengal in the east across India and Pakistan to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Turkey.

Pakistani journalist Haroon Khalid explores the complexity of the Sufi poets’ same-sex relationships in his article, “From Bulleh Shah and Shah Hussain to Amir Khusro, same-sex references abound in Islamic poetry (June 16, 2016,

The issue is complicated by the public perception of these Sufi poets as saints that makes any discussion on their character or sexual preference “an affront to religion”.

“These relationships in today’s context might appear as anomalies,” says Khalid, “yet they are celebrated by the devotees of these saints. Perhaps, in this way, they represent the uneasy relationship between homosexuality and the Muslim world.”

Does Islam forbid homosexuality? Not according to Imam Daayiee Abdullah, perhaps the only known openly gay Muslim priest in the Americas (“Meet America’s first openly gay imam”, Al Jazeera, Dec 12, 2013). Others are sure to emerge, as they did in the Judaeo-Christian communities.

NOTE: Organisations working to expand these spaces and support Muslim queers include the Muslim Association for Sexual and Gender Diversity (MASGD) and the South Asian Gay and Lesbian Alliance in New York (SALGANY).